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作者: mlkj (                    ) 看板: IA
標題: [編譯] 經濟學人 Asia View
時間: Thu May 10 15:41:56 2007

Diseases without Borders

台灣不健康地被排除在世界衛生組織外


小安地列斯島上的一個小島國,人口約17萬,聖露西亞在國際政治中不是一個重要
的力量。但台灣政府最近為了他們在4月30日,決定跟台灣建立外交關係而大肆慶
祝。因為中國政府把外交視為一種零和遊戲--5月5日時斬斷了和聖露西亞的關係
--這是一個在北京與台北間,持續了六十年的外交拔河中小小的勝利。這讓台灣
的邦交國數到了25個--大多數這些國家都是小小的窮窮的,通常是為了援助的承
諾而建交。


但台灣努力疲憊拼外交時,在上個月經歷了一個更嚴重的挫敗。他們重複申請進入
世界衛生組織時又被否決掉了。在世界上沒什麼人注意這件事:畢竟台灣從1972年
就被逐出WHO了,他們從1997年開始每年都僅僅希望以觀察員的身分進入WHO。他們
想以完整會員加入的想法與其說是瘋狂,不如說是刺激性的:當然中國會阻止。


雖然說註定失敗了,但他們申請還是讓北京很生氣。因為這次申請的名字,不是用
那些避免讓中國面紅耳赤的模糊字彙(像是Chinese Taipei,參加明年北京奧運台
灣代表隊所要用的名字),而是用台灣二字。這個請求暗示著台灣的執政黨同步朝
向「法理(de jure)」與「事實(de fecto)」獨立。


從北京的觀點來看,台灣想利用國際衛生的關注,建立一個灘頭堡。這是一個觀點
。但台灣有更大的目的:對一個以保護以及提倡全球健康的組織來說,他們被排除
在外是可恥的。
近幾年來,傳染病,像是SARS肆虐了中國還有他的鄰居,已經讓我
們知道立即和全面性的資訊交換有多重要。禽流感持續的威脅讓這個議題更具急迫
性。


被排除在WHO外不代表這個組織就不會去台灣。但是一個外流的備忘錄顯示出WHO跟
中國達成了一個令人不屑的歧視協議。根據倫敦衛生學院的Martin Mckee和Rifat
Atun
所著的「Lancet」,這個備忘錄要求所有台灣可能和WHO的接觸都必須在五個星期前,
經過中國代表在日內瓦(WHO總部)的核可;中國決定哪些台灣的個別人士可以被接觸
;絕對不跟台灣溝通,而是和專家所在的城市接觸,諸如此類的。


這是一件又危險又羞辱人的事。四月中旬,來自香港的陳馮富珍,WHO秘書長,為台灣
會員資格被擋在門外的否決案強烈辯護,說他們是由193個「強烈支持『一個中國政策』
的會員國」決定這個政策的。


但這一點也沒道理。他們不止忽略了25(那時是24)個承認台灣的國家,也假設會員們
不會為了這個重要的公共衛生議題想個解套的方法。舉例來說,日本和美國在過去曾經
支持台灣以觀察員進入的請求。歐盟為了保持對外政策的一致性,則沒有。


有些台灣的發言人誇大了WHO會員的重要性,聽起來好像這個冷酷的世界聽從中國的命
令,讓台灣暴露在可怕的風險中。舉例來說,他們責備WHO應該為台灣在SARS期間喪失
的近四十條人命負責。雖然說會員資格也沒有幫助中國跟香港,在大傳染時保住650條
人命。


為了不必要的官僚或是政治拖延的確有危險性。對台灣來說這種會損失人命的風險的
確是不可承受之重。在這個事件中,的確應該幫助台灣--然後也可以從他們非常令人
驚艷的公共衛生經驗中受益--而不是堅持先羞辱一頓。


原文

http://www.economist.com/daily/columns/asiaview/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9140017

Asia.view

Diseases without borders

May 9th 2007
From Economist.com

Taiwan’s unhealthy exclusion from the WHO

A TINY island-nation in the Lesser Antilles, with a population of about 170,000, St Lucia is not a big force in international politics. Yet Taiwan’s government has been celebrating as a triumph its decision on April 30th to reopen diplomatic relations with the island. Since China’s government regards diplomacy as a zero-sum game—and duly severed its own ties with St Lucia on May 5th—this was a minor victory in a six-decade-old war of diplomatic attrition between Beijing and Taipei. It brings the number of Taiwan’s diplomatic partners to 25—most of which are similarly small and poor countries, their allegiance bought with promises of aid.

Yet Taiwan last month suffered a far more serious defeat in this tiresome diplomatic set-to. Its application for readmission to the United Nations’ World Health Organisation (WHO) was dismissed. Few people around the world paid much attention: after all, Taiwan, evicted from the WHO in 1972, had since 1997 made annual bids to secure merely “observer” status at the WHO. Its application for full membership seemed not so much quixotic as provocative: of course China was going to block it.  

 

Doomed anyway, the application was calculated to heighten Beijing’s ire, since it was made in the name not of some euphemism designed to spare China’s blushes (such as “Chinese Taipei”, the nomenclature to be used by Taiwan’s team at next year’s Beijing Olympics) but of Taiwan itself. This hints at the wish of many in Taiwan’s ruling party to move towards de jure as well as de facto independence.

From Beijing’s point of view, Taiwan is exploiting global-health concerns to build political capital. It has a point. But Taiwan has a bigger one: its exclusion from an organisation whose aim is to safeguard and promote global health is outrageous. In recent years, epidemics such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which ravaged China and its environs in 2003, have demonstrated the need for the swift and full exchange of information. The continuing threat of avian influenza gives the issue urgency.

AFP/PATRICK LIN Yearning to become a member

Exclusion from the WHO does not mean that Taiwan is a no-go zone for the organisation. But a leaked memorandum of understanding that the WHO and China agreed on in 2005 shows appalling discrimination against it. According to Martin McKee and Rifat Atun of the London School of Hygiene, writing in the Lancet, the memorandum requires all possible WHO contacts with Taiwan to be cleared with China’s delegation in Geneva (the WHO’s headquarters) at least five weeks in advance; China decides which Taiwanese individuals will be contacted; communications should identify not Taiwan, but just the city from which the expert to be contacted comes, etc.

This is dangerous as well as humiliating stuff. In mid-April Margaret Chan, the WHO’s director-general, who is from Hong Kong, defended the organisation’s refusal to consider Taiwan’s membership by saying its policies are set by its 193 members who “hold on very strongly to the ‘one-China’ principle”.

But this argument does not make sense. Not only does it ignore the 25 (24 at the time) countries that recognise Taiwan, it also assumes that members could not be persuaded to make an exception for an issue so important as public health. Japan and America, for example, have in the past backed Taiwan’s bid for observer status. The European Union, in a rare instance of foreign-policy commonality, has not.

Some Taiwanese spokesmen overstate the importance of WHO membership, making it sound as if a callous world is exposing Taiwan to horrible risks at China’s behest. They blame the WHO, for example, for the loss of nearly 40 lives in Taiwan to SARS, although membership could not help China and Hong Kong avoid 650 deaths between them from that epidemic.

Yet there is the danger of unnecessary bureaucratic or political delays, and Taiwan is surely right that any such risks taken with people’s lives are unacceptable. In this instance, it would be better to help Taiwan—and benefit from its own quite impressive public-health experience—without insisting it be humiliated first.


+++++++++++++++++++++
2007.05.15
【史上最屈辱 『雅爾達』密約】
中共設5道緊箍咒 阻擋我入世衛

江慧真/新聞幕後

我國第十一度叩關世界衛生組織(WHO),今年改弦更張,揚棄過去十年策略,改挑戰
最高難度的「會員案」,關鍵在於WHO和中國簽訂的一份「秘密備忘錄」。這份密約早
在二○○五年簽訂,但今年三月內容才被我方由機密管道取得,我方才發現障礙重重、茲
事體大。
這份被我方喻為史上最屈辱的「雅爾達密約」,兩年前由WHO秘書處和中國雙方秘密簽
訂,為台灣參與WHO的各項會議、座談和醫療活動設下最為嚴苛的陷阱。且我方高層極
度憂心的是,此模式有可能成為未來台灣參與任何國際組織的「先例」,且此例一開,將
等同為台灣的國際空間設下毫無解套的「緊箍咒」。

外交部長黃志芳昨天透露,外交單位早在兩年前,知道中國逼迫WHO秘書處簽下這紙秘
密備忘錄(MOU);但兩年來透過各美日等盟友和友邦了解內容,始終不得其門而入,
一直到今年三月透過特殊管道,整個密約內容才正式曝光。

根據這份MOU,台灣從今年起以任何形式想要參與WHO相關活動,都必須透過中國的
五大限制:第一,台灣醫療及公衛專家如果想要參加WHO舉辦的技術性活動和會議,或
者WHO秘書處要派專家到台灣調查疫情,最晚應該在會議召開、或者人員出發五周內,
向WHO指定聯絡人申請。

其次,WHO聯絡人就算批准了台灣案,還要送到中國駐日內瓦代表團轉送中國衛生部審
核。中國收見後兩週回覆是否同意。

第三,台灣派遣參與WHO技術會議的專家要以「個人」身分出席,層級要在處長以下,
會議主辦單位的資料上面要清楚寫著來自「中國台灣」。而WHO派到台灣的人員,層級
也要在處長以下。

第四,如果台灣發生「中國認可」的緊急公衛事件,WHO幹事長要取得中國衛生部同意
之後,才可以派遣專家或人員到中國台灣,進行實地考察或給予協助。WHO派人來中國
台灣處理緊急事件的八周內,也必須再和中國諮商,決定緊急事件是否已經解決。

第五,此備忘錄如果還有沒有週到的部分,都要由WHO聯絡人和中國駐日內瓦代表團諮
商決定。
黃志芳說,WHO和中國不但秘密簽下傷害台灣最深的「雅爾達密約」,且還不讓台灣知
道。也就是因為這份秘約,台灣決定不再沉默,「反正也沒有比這個更慘的了」,高層決
定拉高抗爭動作,逼使大會作出投票表決,讓台灣申請會員案能夠列入WHO的正式紀錄


http://news.chinatimes.com/2007Cti/2007Cti-Focus/2007Cti-Focus-Content/0,4518,9605150052+96051505+0+093922+0,00.html


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